Questions fréquentes

Where do the Acadians come from?

The Acadians are the descendants of French settlers who came to North America from 1604 onward. Most of them originated from the western part of central France. They settled in the territory formerly known as “Acadie”. In its most confined limits, Acadie included the territory covered by present-day mainland Nova Scotia. The Acadians lived primarily along the shores of the Bay of Fundy where they farmed the land and raised livestock. Despite the fact that they were living in a politically unstable colony, they managed to achieve a reasonable level of prosperity. Situated between New England and New France, Acadie constituted a strategic territory for both Britain and France. As a result of the continuing battles between the two super-powers, the Acadians lived alternately under French and British rule. In 1713, under the Treaty of Utrecht, France was forced to cede Acadie to Great Britain – once and for all. The Acadians continued to live in Acadie until 1755 when they were deported and scattered throughout the British colonies along the Atlantic seaboard, which corresponds to today’s Eastern United States. By 1720, a few Acadian families had moved to Isle Saint-Jean which was still under French rule. They were later joined by many others, especially in the seven years that preceded the great expulsion of 1755.

Where did the first Acadians who came to Isle Saint-Jean (present-day Prince Edward Island) settle?

The first large group of French settlers who came to the Island were not Acadians; these 200 or so people came from France. They mostly settled at Havre Saint-Pierre and Havre-aux-Sauvages, where they could fish cod. The few Acadian families who moved to the Island in the 1720s settled at Port-Lajoie, Havre-aux-Sauvages, Rivière-du-Nord-Est (Hillsborough River), Tracadie and Malpeque.

Who are the Acadian founding families of Prince Edward Island?

The names of the Island Acadian founding families (who arrived between 1720-1850) are inscribed in stone in front of the Acadian Museum. With the help of genealogist Stephen White, the list of names was established as follows: 1. The names of 27 household heads according to the 1798 Census;
2. Two other names that did not appear in the 1798 Census, but who were indeed present on the Island in 1798, were added;
3. Five of the wives of the 27 household heads according to the 1798 Census whose ancestors were on Isle Saint-Jean before the Deportation;
4. Ten other families who arrived on the Island between 1827 and 1850. 1. The names of 27 household heads according to the 1798 Census:

  • Arsenault
  • Aucoin
  • Bernard
  • Blanchard
  • Blaquière
  • Bourque
  • Buote
  • Cheverie
  • Chiasson
  • DesRoches
  • Doiron
  • Doucet
  • Downing
  • Gallant
  • Gaudet
  • Gauthier
  • Gautreau
  • Landry
  • LeBrun
  • LeClair
  • Longuépée
  • Martin
  • Pineau
  • Pitre
  • Poirier
  • Richard
  • Roussel
2. Two other names that did not appear in the 1798 Census, but who were indeed present on the Island in 1798, were added:
  • Cormier
  • Daigle
3. Five of the wives of the 27 household heads according to the 1798 Census whose ancestors were on Isle Saint-Jean before the Deportation:
  • Belliveau : Three sisters who married Doucet, LeClair and Buote.
  • Boudreau : Importance of the nine Boudreau sisters in the Island’s Acadian families.
  • Carret : The female ancestor of Martin.
  • Comeau : The female ancestor of certain Blaquière and Gautreau families.
  • Petitpas : Wife of a Bourque
4. Ten other families who arrived on the Island between 1827 and 1850:
  • Caissie - 1827
  • Haché - 1830
  • Maillet - 1835
  • Thibodeau - 1835
  • LeBlanc - 1836
  • Barriault - 1839
  • Robichaud - 1840
  • Thériault - 1844
  • Duguay - 1845
  • Maddix - 1851

Where were the Acadians of Isle Saint-Jean (present-day Prince Edward Island) deported in 1758?

The Deportation from Isle Saint-Jean took place in 1758. Island Acadians were deported to France, while the Acadians from Acadia (present-day Nova Scotia) had been deported to British colonies from Massachusetts to Georgia in 1755. Close to 3,000 Acadians were deported from the Island to France. Of these, only about 35% survived this terrible ordeal. Two-thirds of the deportees died, either by drowning when ships that were transporting them sank, or following epidemics on board other ships. Moreover, about 2,000 Acadians from Isle Saint-Jean escaped deportation, either by seeking refuge in northern New Brunswick or by going into hiding on the Island.

Who named the Island “Isle Saint-Jean”? Why this name?

No one really knows, but the name already existed in 1601, since it appeared on a map. Jacques Cartier did not name the Island. He had not recognized the insularity of our territory when he docked here at the end of June 1534. The Island was probably named after Saint-Jean-Baptiste, since explorers docked here around the time of the patronal holiday (June 24).

Where does the name “Rustico” come from?

“Rustico” is the name of a village on Prince Edward Island. It is believed that the place was named after René Racicot, a Norman who came to the Island in 1724 and married Marie Haché, daughter of Michel Haché-Gallant. However, there is no indication that René Racicot nor his family lived in Rustico, therefore no one really knows why his name was given to the place. Even if no Acadians lived in Rustico before the Deportation, the French already referred to this place as “Racicot”. In the journal recounting his pastoral visit in 1812, Monseigneur Plessis, bishop of Québec, contended that people said both Racicot and Rustico.

What is the meaning of the word “Acadie”?

The Italian explorer, Giovanni Verrazano, is credited with the origin of the place name “Acadie”. It was during a voyage of discovery, commissioned by the King of France in 1524, that Verrazano gave the name “Arcadia” to the region on the Atlantic coast which corresponds to present-day Virginia. Struck by the beauty of the landscape, he was reminded of Arcadia in Ancient Greece. Subsequent mappers, however, shifted the place name to the north (present-day mainland Nova Scotia), and gradually changed the spelling to Larcadia, Cadie, La Cadie, and finally, l’Acadie. The name Acadie may also have been influenced by the Micmac language. In Micmac, the word “cadie” means ” place of abundance” and can be found in names such as “Tracadie” and “Shubenacadie”.

What does the Acadian flag represent?

The Acadian flag was chosen in Miscouche, Prince Edward Island in 1884, during the second National Acadian Convention. It was proposed by Reverend Marcel-François Richard from Saint-Louis, New Brunswick, President of the 3rd Commission responsible for studying the choice of a national flag. Here is how he presented his choice: “An army needs a standard. The banner of the Assumption will naturally be carried with religious patriotism at the head of our religious processions. But we must have a national flag to fly over our heads during days when we have national meetings or celebrations. Several types of flags have been proposed. I do not want to depreciate suggestions made on this subject, but I cannot agree with those who claim that we must choose a flag which is totally different from that of our motherland. The tricoloured flag is France’s flag, of which we are descendants, and this flag has the right to fly throughout the entire universe according to international laws. For us, Acadians, this flag simply tells us that we are French and that France is our motherland, just like the Irish flag reminds the Irish of their origin and homeland. However, I would like Acadia to have a flag which would remind us not only that our children are French, but that they are Acadian. I therefore suggest, and propose to the delegates of this Convention, the following plan for a national flag. The tricoloured flag to be made would represent Acadia, since a yellow star would be added to the blue section. The star, representing the star of Mary, Stella Maris, would serve as a crest in the Acadian flag, the same way the Union Jack was used as a crest in the Canadian Confederation flag…” [Unofficial translation] Reverend Marcel-François Richard had been giving a great deal of thought to the Acadian flag for several years. In 1882, during the Assumption holiday in Saint-Louis, he came up with a few ideas for an Acadian flag: “I see four flags flying in the churchyard, he told a crowd of people who had gathered, Mary’s flag, the pontifical flag, the French flag and the Union Jack whose colours and nuances seem appropriate for the making of the Acadian flag.” [Unofficial translation] Two years later, he presented his plan for an Acadian flag to the members of the Commission. On the afternoon of August 15, once the 3rd Commission had finished its work, Father A.-D. Cormier presented his plenary report which he finished off with the following proposal: “It has been proposed by the Secretary and seconded by Reverend M.-F. Richard that: ‘The tricoloured flag be the national flag of the French Acadians. As a distinctive mark of the Acadian nationality, a star, representing Mary, will be placed in the blue section of the flag, which is the symbolic colour of the people who are devoted to the Virgin Mary. This star, Stella Maris, that must guide the small Acadian colony through storms and pitfalls, will be yellow in order to show our sacred attachment to our mother, the Holy Church.’ ” [Unofficial translation] After a speech by Reverend Richard, the proposal was put to vote and received unanimous support and enthusiasm from the crowd. During the course of the evening, while delegates were gathered in the large room of the convent to close the Convention, Reverend Richard, to their great surprise, displayed the new Acadian flag which he had asked one of his parishioners to make. It was with a great deal of emotion that the delegates saluted, for the first time ever, their national flag which was raised across from the Miscouche church the next day. Over the years, it became the most powerful symbol of cultural identity of the Acadian people. Reverend Richard was also influential in the selection of the national holiday during the first National Acadian Convention in Memramcook, New Brunswick. (“Un peuple à unir“, special issue of La Petite Souvenance to mark the Acadian flag’s Centennial, 1884-1984, published by the Société historique acadienne de l’Île-du-Prince-Édouard.)

What are the national Acadian symbols?

A national holiday, a flag, a national anthem, a motto and an insignia constitute the national Acadian symbols. The first Acadian nationalists were aware of the importance of giving their people cultural identity symbols. This question was thus discussed at length during the first two National Acadian Conventions. At the Memramcook Convention in 1881, the Acadians chose a national holiday, and at the Miscouche Convention in 1884, they completed their choice of symbols by adopting a flag, a national anthem, a motto and an insignia. (“Un peuple à unir“, special issue of La Petite Souvenance to mark the Acadian flag’s Centennial, 1884-1984, published by the Société historique acadienne de l’Île-du-Prince-Édouard.)

What are the Acadian insignia and motto?

The Acadian motto is “L’union fait la force” (Strength through Unity). Both were adopted in Miscouche, Prince Edward Island in 1884, during the second National Acadian Convention. The choice of these symbols was reviewed by members of the Commission of the national anthem and flag, who then formulated the following proposal, adopted unanimously by all delegates: “It has been proposed and seconded that the insignia which will be worn on lapels during festivities be a strip of blue silk cloth on which a star surrounded by rays will be embossed. Underneath it will appear a vessel in full sail, bearing the word Acadie on the flag. The motto on the bottom will read “L’union fait la force“. The insignia will be crowned with a red and white rosette.” [Unofficial translation] The Acadians hardly used the insignia. In fact, only one seems to have been preserved at the Musée acadien de l’Université de Moncton. It can be seen on a photograph from the Collection des Pères Eudistes, preserved at the Provincial Archives of New Brunswick, and it is worn by Dr. Félix Comeau, President of the Executive Committee of the fifth Convention, which was held in Caraquet, New Brunswick in 1905. The motto, however, appeared more often. The Acadians used it sometimes in speeches and for decor during festivities, religious ceremonies or conventions. L’Impartial (1893-1915), the first French language newspaper to be published on Prince Edward Island, used it as its own motto. Today, it is not very well known as a national motto among the Acadians. (“Un peuple à unir“, special issue of La Petite Souvenance to mark the Acadian flag’s Centennial, 1884-1984, published by the Société historique acadienne de l’Île-du-Prince-Édouard.)

What is the national Acadian anthem?

The national Acadian anthem was chosen in Miscouche, Prince Edward Island in 1884, during the second National Acadian Convention. Delegates of the third commission which was called “Drapeau et chant national” (National anthem and flag) were unable to submit only one appropriate suggestion, so they named a special committee to do so. However, the committee did not have to make any preliminary studies or recommendations, since the Convention was instantly won over by the Marian hymn, the Ave Maris Stella, probably more for its melody than for its lyrics. In fact, when Father Richard and Father Cormier displayed, before an emotional audience, a superb tricoloured flag decorated with a yellow star, the enthusiasm was universal. Loud cheers welcomed the standard seen for the first time. From all sides, everyone asked for a song, so Father Richard struck up, in a solemn and low-pitched voice, the Ave Maris Stella, which everyone repeated after him. Father Richard, taking the floor, expressed his hope that our musicians would soon find a national melody. Pascal Poirier, interrupting him, announced that for him “the Acadian national melody has already been found, and found in a splendid way that shows the hand of God, the intervention of Mary, our patron saint. This melody that we have been looking for, that we implored, has just echoed in our ears, it has generated the most sweet and gentle sensation in our hearts. It is the melody that Father Richard struck up, which was repeated by the entire audience; it is the melody of the Ave Maris Stella, a hymn which is being sung in all our churches and that we so often hear in our homes; the salutation of the Church to Mary, patron saint of the Acadians”. [Unofficial translation] These words were welcomed by the crowd with jubilation. The President submitted the proposal to the assembly, who adopted it to the sound of the delegation’s enthusiastic cheers. Afterwards, individuals showed that they were in favour of rhymes which would be more representative of the Acadians, with their past full of storms and their future filled with hope. Others were shocked to hear a Church song brought to places where there were politics and alcohol. Time and time again, individuals have tried to compose a national Acadian hymn on the melody adopted in Miscouche. Two profane compositions were somewhat successful, the Marseillaise acadienne, written in 1910 by Father A.-T. Bourque, and En avant!, a work by Father Stanislas Doucet, dating back to 1912. From 1960 onwards, the Ave Maris Stella issue was raised during various meetings. So much so that, in 1972, at a meeting of New Brunswick Francophones held in Fredericton, 58.7% of the delegates agreed that the national Acadian anthem, the Ave Maris Stella, be replaced, while only 16.8% were against this idea. In 1984, one hundred years after it was chosen, the issue of the national anthem is still not settled. The Ave Maris Stella, which is still being sung in latin during certain patriotic events, remains the offical national anthem of Acadia. There is however, a lack of consensus around this symbol. The following are the lyrics of the Ave Maris Stella: Ave, maris stella,
Dei Mater alma,
Atque semper Virgo,
Felix coeli porta. (bis) Sumens illud Ave
Gabrielis ore,
Funda nos in pace,
Mutans Hevae nomen.(bis) Solve vincla reis,
Profer lumen caecis,
Mala nostra pelle,
Bona cuncta posce.(bis) Monstra te esse matrem,
Sumat per te preces
Qui pro nobis natus,
Tulit esse tuus.(bis) Virgo singularis
Inter omnes mitis,
Nos culpis solutos
Mites fac et castos.(bis) Vitam praesta puram,
Iter para tutum,
Ut videntes Jesum
Semper collaetemur.(bis) Sit laus Deo Patri,
Summo Christo decus,
Spiritui Sancto,
Tribus honor unus.(bis) Amen. (“Un peuple à unir“, special issue of La Petite Souvenance to mark the Acadian flag’s Centennial, 1884-1984, published by the Société historique acadienne de l’Île-du-Prince-Édouard.) French Version: In 1988, the Société nationale de l’Acadie initiated a contest and retained the version of La Voix acadienne journalist, Jacinthe Laforest. Here are the French lyrics that she composed on the melody of the Ave Maris Stella. Ave Maris Stella
Dei Mater Alma
Atque Semper Virgo
Felix Coeli Porta (bis) Acadie ma patrie
À ton nom, je me lie
Ma vie, ma foi sont à toi
Tu me protégeras (bis) Acadie ma patrie
Ma terre et mon défi
De près, de loin tu me tiens
Mon coeur est acadien (bis) Acadie ma patrie
Ton histoire, je la vis
La fierté, je te la dois
En l’avenir, je crois (bis) (Chorus)

When is National Acadian Day celebrated?

August 15 is National Acadian Day. Choosing this day was one of the highlights of the first National Acadian Convention in Memramcook, New Brunswick in 1881. This issue raised important discussions. Delegates were exposed to several suggestions, but the debate mainly focused on the Saint-Jean-Baptiste, French Canada’s national holiday, which is celebrated on June 24, and Our Lady of Assumption, which is celebrated on August 15. Supporters of the Saint-Jean-Baptiste agreed that a holiday common to all French Canadians would unite them around common objectives, facing the country’s Anglophone majority. They were hoping to strengthen the ties between Québec and Acadia. Furthermore, since the 1860s, a movement to encourage Acadian parishes to celebrate the Saint-Jean-Baptiste existed in Acadia. Priests and laymen had introduced this practice. It was in Rustico, Prince Edward Island, that the first Saint-Jean-Baptiste holiday was held, at the beginning of the 1860s. Father Georges-Antoine Belcourt, the parish priest originally from Québec, had founded a temperance institute under the patronage of Saint-Jean-Baptiste, and each year members celebrated the birthday of their patron saint. Memramcook, Bouctouche, Miscouche and Baie-Egmont soon jumped on the band wagon. In 1881, a certain number of Acadian parishes had been celebrating the Saint-Jean-Baptiste for a few years. Supporters of the Assumption, however, affirmed that the history and nationality of the Acadians was different than that of other French Canadians; an Acadian holiday was thus needed to re-enforce their national identity. The fact that France had been devoted to the Virgin Mary under Louis XIV’s reign, at the exact time when Acadia was founded, is another reason which was used in favour of this particular holiday. The time of year brought another element to the debate. The Assumption occurs during one of the busiest times of the year, haying season. For this reason, the national Acadian holiday would not get celebrated with the desired momentum, since a number of Acadians would be busy with the harvest. However, the Saint-Jean-Baptiste is held during garden planting time, another hectic time of year for the agricultural community. Several speeches were delivered during the debate, including one by Reverend Marcel-François Richard, one of the Assumption’s strongest supporters. His eloquent plea must have influenced the decision, since his proposal is the one which was adopted, without, however, having too much lead over others. Here is an excerpt of his speech: “… In fact, it seems to me that a people who, for over a century of hardships and persecutions, was able to preserve its religion, language, customs and autonomy, must have acquired enough importance to affirm its existence in a solemn way; and this could not be accomplished better than by being able to celebrate its own national holiday… Allow me, at this time, to point out a few of the motives that will encourage you to choose Our Lady of Assumption as National Acadian Day instead of the Saint-Jean-Baptiste. Since Canadians have chosen Saint-Jean-Baptiste as their patron, it seems to me that unless you wish to mistake our nationality with theirs, it is crucial that Acadians choose a particular holiday. It is important to stress that we are not descendants of Canada, but of France. Consequently, I see no reason why we should adopt the Saint-Jean-Baptiste as our national holiday… We must choose a holiday that reminds us of our origin. I am even going to go as far as to affirm that the Assumption has always been, and must always remain, National Acadian Day, since Acadians are descendants of the French race. Louis XIII vowed to give his empire to the Blessed Virgin and he wanted the Assumption to be the kingdom’s national holiday. However, not long afterwards, he sent colonists to take over Acadia. They did, however, have to bring the customs of their homeland along, and if unfortunate circumstances prevented them from celebrating their national holiday in a regular manner, it is true that the national devotion of the Acadians is their devotion to Mary.” [Unofficial translation] Reverend Richard was also influential in the selection of the Acadian flag at the second National Acadian Convention in Miscouche, Prince Edward Island in 1884. (“Un peuple à unir“, special issue of La Petite Souvenance to mark the Acadian flag’s Centennial, 1884-1984, published by the Société historique acadienne de l’Île-du-Prince-Édouard.)

What are the traditional Acadian dishes?

Chicken Fricot Chicken fricot – also called chicken soup – is by far the most popular in Acadia. Years ago, it was mostly made with chicken. Fricot was a festive food. When visitors came by or festivities such as frolics, bees or evening gatherings brought together many people, the Acadians always killed a chicken to make a fricot. Even today, almost all Acadian families make their fricot with a chicken or young hen.

  • 1 chicken
  • fat
  • 1 large chopped onion
  • 1 tablespoon flour
  • 12 cups (3 L) water
  • salt and pepper
  • 1 tablespoon summer savory
  • 5 cups diced potatoes
  1. Cut up chicken. Brown it completely in fat.
  2. Remove chicken and fry onions. Add flour. Cook for 1 or 2 minutes.
  3. Add water, chicken, salt, pepper and summer savory. Cook until chicken is tender (approximately ½ hour for a young hen and 1 ½ hour for a chicken).
  4. Add potatoes and cook for about 20 minutes.
Variation: People often add dumplings to their fricot. In this case, the flour is left out and the dumplings are added to the fricot 7 minutes before the end of cooking time. It is important not to take the cover off the pot while the dumplings are cooking. (BOUDREAU, Marielle and Melvin GALLANT, « Fricot à la poule », La cuisine traditionnelle en Acadie, Moncton, New Brunswick: Éditions d’Acadie, 1975, p. 38.) Râpure This meal is to Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island Acadians what poutine râpée is to Acadians from south-eastern New Brunswick. This festive food can always be found on the menu when receiving guests. In certain areas of New Brunswick, it is called pâté à la râpure or chiard. Even if the basic ingredients are almost the same everywhere, the general aspect of râpure varies considerably according to regions, and even according to families. In certain areas it is made with pork, while in others it is made with chicken, or even seafood. Sometimes, only grated potatoes are used, and other times, people use mashed potatoes or stale bread.
  • 2 pounds (1,010 g) fatty pork
  • 2 chopped onions
  • 4 large potatoes, mashed
  • 12 large potatoes, finely grated
  • 12 eggs
  • 1 tablespoon salt
  • pepper
  • summer savory (optional)
  • coriander
  • fat
  • crisp fried salt pork
  1. Boil potatoes to be mashed.
  2. During this time, dice meat and grill in pan.
  3. Add onions. When ingredients are nice and brown, remove them and set them aside.
  4. Grate uncooked potatoes and squeeze out water by pressing potatoes in a cotton bag or with your hands. (You can rince the grated potatoes in cold water before squeezing them in order to get rid of the pink colour they have taken due to air exposure.)
  5. In a large bowl, mix all ingredients together, including meat.
  6. Place fat in an oven dish (8 x 15 inches) and incorporate râpure mixture. Place crisp fried pork on top of preparation.
  7. Bake for at least 2 hours at 180° (350°) or until top is well browned.
Variation: Chicken can be used instead of pork, or both can be used. (BOUDREAU, Marielle and Melvin GALLANT, « Râpure », La cuisine traditionnelle en Acadie, Moncton, New Brunswick: Éditions d’Acadie, 1975, p. 118.) Traditional Meat Pie Meat pie is found throughout Acadia. This meal is essentially served at Christmas time, even though people have it on other occasions. It would however, be impossible to have a Christmas Eve dinner without meat pie. Meat pie is prepared with pork, to which chicken and hare are often added, and sometimes beef. In spite of its universality, every region does not make it the same way; it varies as much in its ingredients as it does in it the way the crust is prepared. A distinct difference exists between northern New Brunswick meat pies, on the one hand, and those from Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island on the other hand. But people everywhere eat meat pie alone, either for breakfast, supper or for a snack. In the Petit-Rocher and Campbellton areas, Petits cochons (little pigs) are preferred. The preparation is the same, except for the fact that the meat is placed on a 6 inch bread biscuit which is then closed in the shape of a half-moon. Meat pies can be preserved several days if kept chilled. People heat them in the oven before eating them. (BOUDREAU, Marielle and Melvin GALLANT, « Pâté », La cuisine traditionnelle en Acadie, Moncton, New Brunswick: Éditions d’Acadie, 1975, p. 99.) Meat Pie In the past, meat pie was only made with one kind of meat, and most often it was pork. Nowadays, people prefer mixing one or two other meats, which makes it less fattening and gives it a different taste. For 3 or 4 meat pies:
  • 2 pounds (1,010 grams) pork
  • 2 pounds other meat (hare, beef, chicken)
  • 1 large chopped onion
  • salt and pepper
  • choice of spices: summer savory, powdered cloves
  • 2 tablespoons chopped onion
  • 1 tablespoon flour
  • crust (see further)
  1. Cut pork and beef in ½ inch cubes and rest of meat in big pieces.
  2. Place meat in pot along with onion, salt, pepper and enough water to cover ingredients. Cook gently for about 1 ½ hour. Add water if necessary.
  3. ½ hour before the end of cooking time, add spices and 2 tablespoons onion.
  4. Cool, remove meat from bones, cut in small pieces and replace in juice.
  5. Thicken juice with flour mixture and boil for another 2 to 3 minutes.
  6. Cool before placing in crust (see further).
(BOUDREAU, Marielle and Melvin GALLANT, « Pâté à la viande », La cuisine traditionnelle en Acadie, Moncton, New Brunswick: Éditions d’Acadie, 1975, p. 100.) Crust for 3 or 4 meat pies:
  • ¾ pound (1 ¾ cup) lard
  • 6 cups (816 grams) flour
  • 2 teaspoons salt
  • 1 egg
  • 1 packet yeast
  • 2 teaspoons sugar
  • ¾ cup (150 ml) lukewarm water
  • 1 to 1 ½ cup (225 to 325 ml) lukewarm water
  1. Incorporate grease and flour to salt. Add egg.
  2. Dissolve yeast and sugar in ¾ cup lukewarm water and let stand for 10 minutes.
  3. Make a whole in centre of flour and pour in dissolved yeast and 1 cup lukewarm water. Mix gradually to flour in order to obtain a dough that is firm enough to be rolled. Add lukewarm water if necessary.
  4. Roll dough and place it in pie plates. Pour in meat garnishes and cover with another layer of dough.
  5. Let rise at room temperature for about 15 minutes. Cook at 400° (200°) for about 30 minutes.
(BOUDREAU, Marielle and Melvin GALLANT, « Croûtes à pâté » La cuisine traditionnelle en Acadie, Moncton, New Brunswick: Éditions d’Acadie, 1975, p. 103.)

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